Endo-PAT Cardiac Testing
Heart attack, stroke, carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis, atherosclerosis, mesenteric artery disease, and vasculitis afflict millions of people annually. These and other cardiovascular related diseases can lead to additional serious medical conditions, such as critical limb ischemia, kidney failure, aneurysm, pulmonary embolism and more. High blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, sedentary lifestyle, excessive stress, and family history of heart disease are some risk factors usually represented in individuals that develop cardiovascular diseases. Generally, preventative measures, early detection and timely intervention are the best defenses against any progressive or chronic disease. And, many heart conditions and other cardiovascular diseases can be controlled, corrected or cured.
Endo-PAT testing has been proven to be a reliable method of early detection of cardiovascular disease. The endo-PAT test is exceedingly predictive of impending cardiovascular disease and major cardiac events. This predictive capability is accomplished through the assessment of endothelial functionality.
Endothelial cells are significant characters in the microbiological community involved in the creation, protection and support of the entire circulatory vascular system with involvement extending to organs, muscles, bones and tissue. They influence immune function, platelet adhesion and blood clotting with enzymes.
Among other impressive activities, endothelial cells construct a protective, supportive, functional lining, or remarkably thin wall, inside the blood vessels. The single layer wall, or endothelium, is located on the interior of the blood vessel seated on the basal lamina and surrounding the arterial lumen (open area that the blood flows through). The basil lamina separates the endothelium from the outer layers of the blood vessel, or artery.
Endothelial cells, forming an endothelium, line the entire circulatory vascular system. They have the ability to proliferate through cell division enabling repairs and adjustments to the endothelium whenever necessary. They have significant control over the blood vessel’s structure and functions.
Endothelial cells control the passage of materials into and out of the bloodstream. They have mechanoreceptors and can sense the shear stress of blood flow as it travels through the blood vessel, passing across the endothelium surface. The endothelial cells can then signal the surrounding cells to move and adjust the vessel’s diametric size and wall thickness (relaxing and/or contracting) to accommodate the blood flow. They can also make adjustments in response to neural signals.
An endo-PAT test detects endothelial dysfunction. When the artery, or blood vessel, does not respond appropriately to signals, or endothelial stimulus, it is described as endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is recognized as definitive precursor to heart attack, stroke and all other cardiovascular disease. The endo-PAT test assesses volume changes resulting from blood flow with occlusion and release. An endo- PAT vasoreactivity measurement is obtained non-invasively from the fingertip.
The acronym “endo- PAT” is derived from endothelial and peripheral arterial tone. Endo-PAT testing is fast, painless and noninvasive. Three five minute occlusions are conducted. The entire process takes under half an hour. If you have relevant cardiovascular risk factors, Dr. Alonso may recommend an endo-PAT test.